.



- The simbol "" is linking to wikipedia related subjects.
- Some of the images link  to related web sites, others are there
for you to use the "see image" comand in your browser.


 
Images from SXIV to SXVIII?()
Alchemy
(posible origin form sIII to sXac.) http://www.byzant.com/kabbalah/

"The Ripley Scroll is an important 15th century work of emblematic symbolism. Twenty one copies are known, dating from the early 16th century to the mid-17th. There are two different forms of the symbolism, with 17 manuscripts of the main version, and 4 manuscripts of the variant form. There are very wide variations in the English text on the different manuscripts, and for the text here I have modernised and unified a number of versions. This is not a properly researched edition, but a reworking of the text into a modern readable form. I add the engravings of the Scroll printed in David Beuther, Universal und Particularia... Hamburg, 1718."
The alchemy web site

http://www.levity.com/alchemy/rscroll.htm

to "Sci-Fi"

Title: The New Atlantis
Author: Francis Bacon
Year:
1626

 

The flirt between geometry, algebra
and tabular data

1600 B.C.
."The point really is that the Babylonians knew that the ratio of diagonal to side was exactly the square root of 2 (...) I believe that we are looking here at the very origins of mathematical reasoning. " babylonian math

125 A.D.
"The fragment contains the statement, in Greek, of Proposition 5 from Book II of Euclid's Elements (...) This is a fragment of what is likely part of a larger papyrus roll from the early years of the current era. It was dug up in 1896-7 from rubbish piles of the ancient town of Oxyrhynchus (about 110 miles up the Nile from Cairo). Oxyrhynchus was populated by Greek colonists, a remnant of the conquest in about 330 B. C. by Alexander the Great."

greek math

Milestones in the history of thematic cartography, statistical graphics, and data visualization Michael Friendly.


833 A.D.
A page from Al-Khwārizmīs Algebra, and a XII century latin translation.

medieval islamic math

888 A.D.


manuscript of Euclid's Elements, Constantinople, 888
bizantine math
1100
a XII century latin translation of Al-Khwārizmī's Zīj al-Sindhind (on trigonometry)
1200

optics study, Roger Bacon

1300

Fibonacci manuscript and the famous pogression.
1300

"Bishop Nicholas Oresme developed the first, inchoate form of co-ordinate geometry. In this new space-construction, Oresme used a horizontal and vertical axis—the X- and Y-axes of Cartesian geometry—to locate points in space. In place of the closed curves and triangles of Greek geometry, Oresme predicated a vast, two-dimensional matrix of space, which extended indefinitely in all directions away from the origin. His purpose remained Euclidean: to describe mathematical bodies. But by placing all Euclidean figures in an infinite plane of co-ordinated points, Oresme had already unconsciously subsumed the whole Euclid into a new, Western vision of space"

Proto-bar graphs

 

1400
Paccioli and Leonardo's applied geometry

1550


Napier's logarithmic tables
1600

Pascal and Fermat introduce probability
declive of the sky

Kepler's Platonic solid model of the Solar system from Mysterium Cosmographicum

Galileo's solar system

.
.
.



domesday book

Political advise,
Price's Mirrors,
census,

Political inquire,



into social inquiry
early statistics imagery


The union of algebra and geometry
The invention of Cartesian coordinates in the 17th century by René Descartes revolutionized mathematics by providing the first systematic link between Euclidean geometry and algebra. Using the Cartesian coordinate system, geometric shapes (such as curves) can be described by Cartesian equations: algebraic equations involving the coordinates of the points lying on the shape
It was developed independently by Pierre de Fermat, although Fermat used three dimensions, and did not publish the discovery

It would later play an intrinsic role in the development of calculus by Newton and Leibniz.

The German Statistik, first introduced by Gottfried Achenwall (1749), originally designated the analysis of data about the state, signifying the "science of state" (then called political arithmetic in English)
1662John Graunt Natural and Political Observations Made upon the Bills of Mortality


1769 Joseph Priestley A New Chart of History

1786 William Playfair Commercial and Political Atlas

1690William Petty
A Treatise of Taxes and Contributions
(1662)
Political Arithmetic (1690)
Political Anatomy of Ireland (1691)





1802, 1820


Newton's optimism
1687
1718

Paliamentary document

1731 Edward Cave

The Gentleman's magazine

1731... First Gazettes and Newspapers spread statistical information to a wider public throught tabular arrays (Mortality, Weather, Market prices, Stocks...)

1780 London Magazine, the "monthly intelligencer"

1730's Essay on the Nature of Trade in GeneralRichard Cantillon


A model of Cantillon's circular flow

1758
, Economic TableFrançois Quesnay



physiocrats


relational graphs relate wide aggregate groups of people:
to systems thinking



1776, Adam Smith's
The Wealth of Nations

 



1750, 1850, Bayes and Quetelet, push towards the current mathematical meaning of statistics


1832 Saturday magazine, displays a cartographic curiositie.
1786-1900 stat. graphs live as eye-candyentertainers until around 1900 start appearing in regular textbooks.
1869 Charles Joseph Minard , develops the possibilities of the abstract proportional metaphores


France exports 1864
1873 Francis A Walker publishes an Statistical Atlas of the United States, (9th census)



to human geography

1817 map of illiteracy in France by Dupin

One of the first examples of geographic methods being used for purposes other than to describe and theorise the physical properties of the earth is John Snow's map of the 1854 Broad Street cholera outbreak. Though a physician and a pioneer of epidemiology, the map is probably one of the earliest examples of Health geography.
Booth's map of Poverty in London

1901 Charles Booth is most famed for his innovative work on documenting working class life in London at the end of the 19th century.


1905
In economics, the Lorenz curve It is often used to represent income distributionit is considered to be a measure of social inequality. developed by Max O. Lorenz


growing social concern

 

 

1906 Pareto noticed that 80% of Italy's land was owned by 20% of the population.He then carried out surveys on a variety of other countries and found to his surprise that a similar distribution applied.


1931

1949
In the Phillips machine, the flow of money around an economy maps to the flow of liquid around the machine. At various points during the flow, proportions of liquid could be routed off into storage vessels representing, say, national savings. Government borrowing is represented by removing money from a storage vessel.
Really what Phillips was trying to produce was a illustrative model of Keynesian economics

 

 

 

 




 

 

 

 

 

 






Faraday's magnetic fields 1854
Circuit Imagery
leads to first standarized systems schemes
AMPÈRE, OHM,VOLTA,FARADAY, COULOMB, KRITCHOFF...
,

1800
First electric battery invented by Alessandro Volta.Also proved
electricity could travel over wires.

1827
Ohm writes the first complete theory of electricity. The Galvanic Circuit Investigated Mathematically.


(to sci-fi)

Mary Shelley,
Frankenstein, or,
The Modern Prometheus
1818

early computer imagery.



1843
Ada Byron, Lady Lovelace (1815-1852), daughter of Lord Byron and (romantically) author of the first computer program.
She writed a translation of, and Notes to, Luigi F. Menabrea's.
" Sketch of the analytical engine invented by Charles Babbage, Esq." (1842/1843) (Christopher D. Green, 2000) http://psychclassics.yorku.ca/
1840
Charles Babbage's
Differential Engine – (romantically) the first compute
“By 1820, apparently frustrated with the errors he found in the published mathematical tables of the day, Babbage developed a design for a machine that would calculate and print them flawlessly. He called the machine the "Difference Engine" because it depended on a procedure known as the "method of differences" for its calculations. (...)
By 1833, however, Babbage had come up idea for a radically new machine, one that could calculate and print the result of any function at all, not just those reducible to the method of differences. In 1836 he hit upon the idea that the operation of this new machine could be controlled by having it "read" instructions coded into punched cards, like those used in the automatic loom that had been built by Joseph-Marie Jacquard in France in 1801. He called the new machine the "Analytical Engine." (...)” (Christopher D. Green, 2000)
http://psychclassics.yorku.ca/



.....

early graph imagery
1736Seven Bridges of Königsberg
"One of the first results in graph theory appeared in Leonhard
Euler's paper on Seven Bridges of Königsberg, published in 1736. It is also regarded as one of the first topological results in geometry; that is, it does not depend on any measurements. This illustrates the deep connection between graph theory and topology.
"
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Graph_theory


>>>


Leonard Euler
 




The Four Color Problem dates back to 1852 when Francis Guthrie, while trying to color the map of counties of England noticed that four colors sufficed. He asked his brother Frederick if it was true that any map can be colored using four colors in such a way that adjacent regions (i.e. those sharing a common boundary segment, not just a point) receive different colors.
The first published reference is found in Arthur Cayley's, On the colourings of maps., Proc. Royal Geography Society 1, 259-261, 1879. There were several early failed attempts at proving the theorem. One proof of the theorem was given by Alfred Kempe in 1879, which was widely acclaimed; another proof was given by Peter Tait in 1880. It wasn't until 1890 that Kempe's proof was shown incorrect by Percy Heawood, and 1891 that Tait's proof was shown incorrect by Julius Petersen - each false proof stood unchallenged for 11 years.
In 1890, in addition to exposing the flaw in Kempe's proof, Heawood proved that all planar graphs are five-colorable; see five color theorem.
Significant results were produced by Croatian mathematician Danilo Blanuša in the 1940s by finding an original snark. During the 1960s and 1970s German mathematician Heinrich Heesch developed methods of applying the computer in searching for a proof.
In 1969 British mathematician G. Spencer-Brown claimed that the theorem could be proven with mathematics he had developed. However, he was never able to produce a proof.
It was not until
1976 that the four-color conjecture was finally proven by Kenneth Appel and Wolfgang Haken at the University of Illinois. They were assisted in some algorithmic work by J. Koch."
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Four_color_problema


to maths imagery




 

 

 

 

1786
Luigi Galvani demonstrated what we now understand to be the electrical basis of nerve impulses when he made frog muscles twitch by jolting them with a spark from an electrostatic machine.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1900
(SantiagoRamon y Cajal)
Cajal
neuron imagery


  NATURALISM


V acation Stories
Five Science Fiction Tales
Santiago Ramón y Cajal
1880

Brain later imagery









language as network

 

 

1975

Psychohistory
is the controversial study of the psychological motivations of historical events.It combines the insights of psychotherapy with the research methodology of the social sciences to understand the emotional origin of the social and political behavior of groups and nations, past and present. Its subject matter is childhood and the family (especially child abuse), and psychological studies of anthropology and ethnology.
This Systemic Psycology analizes the media looking for psicological projections



2:3 Child sacrifice suggestion prior to the Middle East crisis
The Emotional Life of Nations 2002 Lloyd DeMause

 

 

 


Miller 1985

WordNet is a lexical database for the English language. It groups English words into sets of synonyms called synsets, provides short, general definitions, and records the various semantic relations between these synonym sets
1903
Ideoscopy

"You know that I particularly approve of inventing new words for new ideas. I do not know that the study I call Ideoscopy can be called a new idea, but the word phenomenology is used in a different sense. Ideoscopy consists in describing and classifying the ideas that belong to ordinary experience or that naturally arise in connection with ordinary life, without regard to their being valid or invalid or to their psychology. In pursuing this study I was long ago (1867) led, after only three or four years' study, to throw all ideas into the three classes of Firstness, of Secondness, and of Thirdness." (A Letter to Lady Welby, CP 8.328, 1904)
Phaneroscopy
"Phaneroscopy is the description of the phaneron; and by the phaneron I mean the collective total of all that is in any way or in any sense present to the mind, quite regardless of whether it corresponds to any real thing or not. If you ask present when, and to whose mind, I reply that I leave these questions unanswered, never having entertained a doubt that those features of the phaneron that I have found in my mind are present at all times and to all minds. So far as I have developed this science of phaneroscopy, it is occupied with the formal elements of the phaneron. I know that there is another series of elements imperfectly represented by Hegel's Categories. But I have been unable to give any satisfactory account of them." (Adirondack Lectures, CP 1.284, 1905)
Phenomenology
"Philosophy is divided into (a) Phenomenology; (b) Normative Science; (c) Metaphysics.
Phenomenology ascertains and studies the kinds of elements universally present in the phenomenon; meaning by the phenomenon, whatever is present at any time to the mind in any way. Normative science distinguishes what ought to be from what ought not to be, and makes many other divisions and arrangements subservient to its primary dualistic distinction. Metaphysics seeks to give an account of the universe of mind and matter. Normative science rests largely on phenomenology and on mathematics; metaphysics on phenomenology and on normative science." ('A Syllabus of Certain Topics of Logic', EP 2:259, 1903)


The
Speech Mass , statistically presented by computational linguistics

The Google Labs N-gram Viewer is the first tool of its kind, capable of precisely and rapidly quantifying cultural trends based on massive quantities of data. The browser is designed to enable you to examine the frequency of words (banana) or phrases ('United States of America') in books over time. You'll be searching through over 5.2 million books: ~4% of all books ever published!
(an analogous system was used in previously comented discipline of psicohistory^)

(1968Semantic Networks :
“The term dates back to Ross Quillian's Ph.D. Thesis (1968) (...)
Quillian's basic assumption was that the meaning of a word could be represented by the set of its verbal associations. To see what this means, imagine that, in the course of reading a novel, you come across the word `dugong' and the context does not make clear what the word refers to. So you look up the word in a dictionary, and there you find, not the object or the property or the action itself, but rather a definition made up of other words”
Mike Sharples, David Hogg, Chris Hutchison, Steve Torrance, David Young

http://www.informatics.susx.ac.uk/books/computers-and-thought
1976 Conceptual graphs (CGs) are a formalism for knowledge representation. In the first published paper on CGs, John F. Sowa (Sowa 1976) used them to represent the conceptual schemas used in database systems. The first book on CGs (Sowa 1984) applied them to a wide range of topics in artificial intelligence, computer science, and cognitive science.

 

 



Cognitive psychology second assumption:
Internal mental processes can be
described in terms of rules or algorithms
in information processing models



Chomsky
1968


Greenwald
1988

1956..
The Cognitive Revolution
began in the mid-1950s when researchers in several fields began to develop theories of mind based on complex representations and computational procedures (Miller, 1956; Broadbent, 1958; Chomsky, 1959; Newell, Shaw, & Simon, 1958). Cognitive psychology became predominant in the 1960s (Tulving, 1962; Sperling, 1960). Its resurgence is perhaps best marked by the publication of Ulric Neisser’s book, ‘’Cognitive Psychology’’, in 1967. Since 1970, more than sixty universities in North America and Europe have established cognitive psychology programs.


Axel Buchner
1994

 

From very early computer imagery.
from the robot




cognitive imagery

. .

. . .


Brain based machine model, Thinking Solutions, 1997

Stress System Dyagram, Ronald Melzack, 2009. . . EXTROPIAN HOPEFULNESS







To "AI imegery"


to "non fictional speculative imagery"


 



but also:
The Zeitgeist Movement



machinic imagery from the London Magazine, 1832


Pierre Teilhard de Chardin Jesuit priest who trained as a paleontologist and geologist and took part in the discovery of both Piltdown Man and Peking Man. Teilhard conceived the idea of the Omega Point and developed Vladimir Vernadsky's concept of Noosphere. Some of his ideas came into conflict with officials in the hierarchy of the Catholic Church and several of his books were censured.
Omega point is a term he invented to describe the maximum level of complexity and consciousness to which the universe seems to be evolving

 



images by Joël de Rosnay (born 1937), Ph.D from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, is a Mauritian-born French futurist, science writer, and molecular biologist.,
THE MACROSCOPE 1979

 

antropology and history

CYBERNETICS IMAGERY1900s-2010s



Cybernetics is the interdisciplinary study of the structure of regulatory systems. Cybernetics is closely related to control theory and systems theory. Both in its origins and in its evolution in the second-half of the 20th century, cybernetics is equally applicable to physical and social (that is, language-based) systems.

World Systems Research


Alexander Aleksandrovich Bogdanov
was a Russian physician, philosopher, science fiction writer, and revolutionary of Belarusian ethnicity. He was a key figure in the early history of the Bolshevik faction of the Russian Social Democratic and Labor Party, being one of its cofounders and a rival to Lenin until being expelled in 1909. He invented an original philosophy called “tectology,” now regarded as a forerunner of systems theory. He was also an economist, culture theorist, science fiction writer, and political activist.
Tectology

1948 Cybernetics

Norbert Wiener
Wiener is regarded as the originator of cybernetics, a formalization of the notion of feedback, with many implications for engineering, systems control, computer science, biology, philosophy, and the organization of society.


(By 1900, the French solidified their cultural influence in Brazil through the establishment of the Brazilian Academy of Fine Arts. São Paulo still lacked a university, however, and in 1934 francophile Julio de Mesquita Filho invited anthropologist Claude Lévi-Strauss and Braudel to help establish one. The result was formation of the new University of São Paulo. Braudel later said that the time in Brazil was the "greatest period of his life.")

1950
Fernand
Braudel
has been considered one of the greatest of the modern historians who have emphasized the role of large-scale socioeconomic factors in the making and writing of history. He can also be considered as one of the precursors of World Systems Theory

Immanuel Wallerstein is an American sociologist, historical social scientist, and world-systems analyst.

Andre Gunder Frank was a German-American economic historian and sociologist who was one of the founders of the Dependency theory and the World Systems Theory in the 1960s. He employed some marxian concepts on political economy

Giovanni Arrighi Although in many ways intellectually close to Immanuel Wallerstein, Arrighi tends to ascribe greater significance to the recent shift in economic power to East Asia. He also emphasized his debt to Adam Smith, Max Weber, Karl Marx, Antonio Gramsci, Karl Polanyi and Joseph Schumpeter.


1995 Journal od World-Systems Research
*


 

1960


19601969


.
The pioneering research of Paul Baran in the 1960s, who envisioned a communications network that would survive a major enemy attacked. The sketch shows three different network topologies described in his RAND Memorandum, "On Distributed Communications: 1. Introduction to Distributed Communications Network" (August 1964). The distributed network structure offered the best survivability A rough sketch map of the possible topology of ARPANET by Larry Roberts. The map was drawn in the late 1960s as part of the planning for the network.
(Scanned from Where Wizards Stay Up Late: The Origins of the Internet, by Katie Hafner and Matthew Lyon, page 50.)
The first node on ARPANET at University California Los Angeles (UCLA) on the 2nd of September 1969.
(Source : "Casting the Net", page 55)

 

http://www.computerhistory.org/exhibits/internet_history/
2000'snetwork

(http://www.opte.org/, and more like this at http://www.visualcomplexity.com )










1950 >1990customer surveillance
and management imageries





Data mining is the process of applying these methods to data with the intention of uncovering hidden patterns.It has been used for many years by businesses, scientists and governments to sift through volumes of data such as airline passenger trip records, census data and supermarket scanner data to produce market research reports. (Note, however, that reporting is not always considered to be data mining.)

The premier professional body in the field is the Association for Computing Machinery's Special Interest Group on Knowledge discovery and Data Mining (SIGKDD).[citation needed] Since 1989 they have hosted an annual international conference and published its proceedingsand since 1999 have published a biannual academic journal titled "SIGKDD Explorations"

(Earlier Business grafic culture)


art world
network imagery

1972

1924

1972

2000's

2003 "The Paris-based conceptual group, Bureau d'études, works intensively in two dimensions. For a recent exhibition called 'Planet of the Apes' they have created integrated wall charts of the ownership ties between transnational organizations, a synoptic view of the world monetary game." Brian Holmes

"Léonore Bonaccini and Xavier Fourt form the artist-duo Bureau d´études. For the last several years, the French Group has been producing cartographies of contemporary political, social and economic systems. The visual analysis of transnational capitalism is based on extensive research and usually is presented in the form of large-sized murals. ‘Governing by Networks’, a chart produced in 2003, visualizes the mutual involvements and dependencies within the global media conglomerates. Revealing what normally remains invisible and contextualising apparently separate elements within a bigger whole, these visualizations of interests and cooperations re-symbolize the unseen and hidden"

Efrén Álvarez, GOVERNMENT 2008

ICONOCLASISTAS 2011
(s)
Cartography of Excess (2002)


An Atlas of Radical Cartography (2007)


< 1954 psycogeography

Psychogeography was originally developed by the Lettrist International in the journal Potlach. The originator of what became known as unitary urbanism, psychogeography, and the dérive was Ivan Chtcheglov, in his highly influential 1953 essay "Formulaire pour un urbanisme nouveau"
Guy Debord and others worked to clarify the concept of unitary urbanism, in a bid to demand a revolutionary approach to architecture

< 1990 Mark Lombardi

Mark Lombardi (1951 – March 22, 2000) was an American Neo-Conceptualist and an abstract artist who specialized in drawings attempting to document financial and political frauds by power brokers, and in general 'the uses and abuses of power'

While for most of his career, Lombardi was an abstract painter of no particular note (he pursued it sort of as a hobby during his actual career as an archivist and reference librarian), six years before his death he switched to the pencil diagrams of crime and conspiracy networks that he would be come best known for.



Escape the overcode (2007)

Cartography with your feet
(2010)


2000's Brian Holmes is an American Born (California) theorist, writer and translator living in Chicago, Illinois. Brian Holmes is a Professor of Philosophy at the European Graduate School in Saas-Fee, Switzerland, where he teaches an intensive summer seminar. He has worked with the French Graphics collective Ne Pas Plier (Do Not Bend)from 1999 to 2001. and the French cartography collective Bureau d'Etudes

His articles on Cartography (< at left) represent a public face of what has become a widespread interest in cartography among the art-world community, wich most often comes along with political concern, and the least pure abstract, mathematical and "hardcore-science" implications.

2000's

arround 1990's lies the starting point for History of data visualization
"Imagine
being passionate about statistical graphs. Caring deeply about the integrity of numbers. Liberating the data prisons and expressing the poetry of visual information." SCOTT ROSENBERG

Michael Friendly(site)

Edward Tufte an Michael friendly bring a public and genuine interest in data visualizaion and start turning it into an academic cross-field, and an atractive suject to popular curiosity (allready sensitive).

With an economy and political science academic background which led him to work with Robert A. Dhal, Tufte's writing has become most important in such fields as information design and visual literacy, which deal with the visual communication of information.

Friendy's research interests developed from generally applying quantitative and computer methods to problems in cognitive psychology, including the cognitive aspects of extracting information from graphical display in 1991 to the history of statistics and data visualization; graphical methods for data and information visualization in 2008


Edward Tufte

Designers
and the
computer


2003 Ron Wild starts publishig The Great Map

Desing and eye-candy aporaches to data visualization, introduce a mannerist enthusiasm over the mere abstract idea of Data Visualization, demonstrating a celebrative hopefulness around technological progress in the most modern frame. (much like in the exgtropian movements ^.)

1980
2004
2006
2003 (gapminder)
   
2010
   

2000


2008


Common knowledge thirst

2005's emerging culture of the commons alongside with the "philantropic" crowdsourcing efforts of Google and other following enterprises, give this data visualization enthusiasm an historic scale prospective, in initiatives as the Open Knowledge Foundation.
Open Visualisation visualization software review



2005


Open Knowledge Foundation
2010

Comprehensive Knowledge Archive Network


MEDevEcon

 

 

 

 

 

 





 

 

the academic aporach to social networks




1950 ...
growing scientific interest on complexity issues, the complexity trend

 






People have used the idea of "social network" loosely for over a century to connote complex sets of relationships between members of social systems at all scales, from interpersonal to international. In 1954, J. A. Barnes started using the term systematically to denote patterns of ties, encompassing concepts traditionally used by the public and those used by social scientists: bounded groups (e.g., tribes, families) and social categories (e.g., gender, ethnicity). Scholars such as S.D. Berkowitz, Stephen Borgatti, Ronald Burt, Kathleen Carley, Martin Everett, Katherine Faust, Linton Freeman, Mark Granovetter, David Knoke, David Krackhardt, Peter Marsden, Nicholas Mullins, Anatol Rapoport, Stanley Wasserman, Barry Wellman, Douglas R. White, and Harrison White expanded the use of systematic social network analysis

Network view of cross-border banking in 2007 (Minoiu and Reyes 2011) via financial network analysis

SNA
Social Network Analysis


2000
Journal of Social Structures




Star, Tree and Circle networks (examples of SNA categorizations)

line network

The power of social network analysis stems from its difference from traditional social scientific studies, which assume that it is the attributes of individual actors—whether they are friendly or unfriendly, smart or dumb, etc.—that matter. Social network analysis produces an alternate view, where the attributes of individuals are less important than their relationships and ties with other actors within the network. This approach has turned out to be useful for explaining many real-world phenomena, but leaves less room for individual agency, the ability for individuals to influence their success, because so much of it rests within the structure of their network.

2008Potential Human Rights Uses of
Network Analysis and Mapping
Skye Bender-deMoll
2000
THE KNOWLEDGE IN THE NETWORK David Lazer, Alice Andre-Clark (Governance school)
 
2004 Networks of economic power in Europe. Rodríguez, J.A.; Cárdenas, J.; Oltra, C (working paper)  

/
1909 FROM the “very early New age imagery”(theosophy)
back to 1960:popular psicology
FROM the “not that early New age imagery”
Engrams, then; are perceptual recordings made when the analytical mind is turned off in a manner associated with pain or painful emotionL.Ron Hubbard

/
People have been using image centred radial graphic organizers referred to variably as mental or generic mind maps for centuries in areas such as engineering, psychology, and education, although the claim to the origin of the mind map has been made by a British popular psychology author, Tony Buzan. He claimed the idea was inspired by the general semantics of science fiction novels, such as those of A. E. van Vogt and L. Ron Hubbard
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mind
mapping
(Semantic Networks:)

Following his 1970s series for the BBC, many of his ideas have been set into his series of five books: Use Your Memory, Master Your Memory, Use Your Head, The Speed Reading Book and The Mind Map Book. He has since authored or co-authored over 100 books that have appeared in 30 languages. (Tony Buzan)
1970:
mind maps



Practical examples:
the technique in the
hands of people
(1970)
The tradition of popular, critical and libertarian pedagogies, that dates back to XIX'th century, but also the business and lobby oriented institutions embrace, from 70's on, the use of cartographic practices with educational pruposes. A wide spectrum of society ranging from social mevements to gubernamental institutions and business coaches are turning graphic analysis in to a popular knowledge.

Iconoclasistas 2010-2011
Organization chart of the 15th May civic Movement in Barcelona
while camped in the central square of the city
(2011)





.